Saturday, January 26, 2008

The Pu‘u ‘O‘o-Kupaianaha Eruption of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i, 1983–1997

Littoral explosion at Kamokuna hurls spatter approximately 50 m high during episode 53. Five new littoral cones formed in January. Bench collapses over a 6-hour period on January 30, 1996, resulted in explosions that threw blocks nearly 1 m in diameter up to 250 m inland (photo by C.R. Thornber, 1/28/96)

Littoral explosion at Kamoamoa produces black cloud of spatter at base of billowing white steam plume during episode 52 (photo by L.P. Keszthelyi, 2/5/93)

Bus imbedded in lava with remains of a roof in the background at Kalapana. By this time, an entire community lay buried beneath 15–25 m of lava (photo by J.D. Griggs, 12/4/90, JG19238)

Aerial view of lava lake in Pu‘u ‘O‘o crater. The crater is about 250 m in diameter (photo by J.D. Griggs, 8/30/90 JG18426)

A lei is offered to appease Pele, goddess of the volcano (photo by J.D. Griggs, 4/22/90, JG14805)

Lava pours from tube into sea at Poupou west of Kupapa‘u Point and east of the Waha‘ula heiau. The single tube feeding the entry was exposed when the sea cliff beneath the Poupou littoral cone calved off. The lava stream was referred to as a “fire hose” (photo by J.D. Griggs, 11/27/89, JG13424)

Billowing steam plume marks the spot where tube-fed lava from Kupaianaha enters the ocean east of Kupapa‘u Point. The plum contains a mixture of hydrochloric acid and concentrated saltwater that is created when lava reacts with seawater. Steam explosions (also called littoral explosions because they occur at the shoreline or littoral zone) spray fragments of lava into the air (photo by J.D. Griggs, 2/3/88, JG10760)

Aerial view of Pu‘u ‘O‘o fountain from the north during episode 23. Theodolite measurements of high fountains, which played throughout the day, ranged from 150 to 305 m (photo by J.D. Griggs, 7/28/84, JG4605)

Accretionary lava ball comes to rest on the grass after rolling off the top of an ‘a‘a flow in Royal Gardens subdivision. Accretionary lava balls form as viscous lava is molded around a core of already solidified lava (photo by J.D. Griggs, 7/2/83, JG2562)

View at dusk of the young Pu‘u ‘O‘o cinder-and-spatter cone, with fountain approximately 40 m high, during episode 5 (photo by G.E. Ulrich, 6/29/83, GU6830A)

Forest of lava trees resulting from eruption of a 1-km-line of vents east of Pu‘u Kahaualea. The bulbous top of each lava tree marks the high stand of the lava flow as it spread through the trees. As the fissure eruption waned, the flow continued to spread laterally; its surface subsided, leaving pillars of lava that had chilled against tree trunks. Spattering is from fissure out of view to the left. Note blob of spatter adhering to the top of the stripped ‘ohi‘a tree (photo by J.D. Griggs, 1/7/83, JG653

Aerial view of fountains from eruptive fissures south of Pu‘u Kahaualea, approximately 2,350 m northeast of what is now Pu‘u ‘O‘o. Note single ‘ohi‘a tree burning in front of the fissures (photo by J.D. Griggs, 1/5/83, JG349)

(photo by J.D. Griggs, 02/25/83, JG928) (picture #004)." This image by J.D. Griggs was taken for the United States Geological Survey's Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

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